Biodiversity Management: Fields of Action

"Through the development and use of company sites, buildings or through emissions, etc. businesses directly affect biological diversity. In fishing, farming and forestry, the shock on the environment is mostly direct as well. Often, however, there is an indirect change to the habitat caused, in part, by raw material suppliers and the supply chain. In addition to location development and supply chain management, corporate biodiversity management encompasses further fields of action. Business success and impact factors on biodiversity can be managed by implementing the necessary strategies. The following is a list of the most important fields of action with descriptions for corporate biodiversity management."
Source: Corporate Biodiversity Management Handbook, P.12



  • Building construction, purchase and management
  • Supply of materials and services
  • Energy supply
  • Product storage
  • Further training for employees in procurement


  • Location of material use
  • Product as result of production
  • Development of services
  • Transport between different production sites
  • Storage of (intermediate) products
  • Transport as service product
  • Employee behaviour in production


  • Use of buildings for representational purposes
  • Marketing of used materials or services of product
  • Product and service marketing
  • Marketing of production methods
  • Short and climate friendly transport routes as competitive differentiation (“From the region for the region”)
  • Human resource marketing

Sales and distribution

  • Storage facilities
  • Delivery of products & materials
  • Transport between different production sites Storage of intermediate products
  • Transport and logistical processes

Research and development

  • Material optimisation
  • Product optimization through research
  • Development of new transport and packaging systems
  • Code of ethics for R & D workers

Human resources

  • Employee identification
  • Development of employee incentive systems



  • Need for new space due to degradation or other costs from lower productivity rates
  • Decreasing maintenance costs through new site development
  • Decreasing restoration costs and/or decreasing offset costs
  • Cost reduction by long-term supplier relationships (biodiver sity-oriented supply chain management)
  • Cost reduction by taking advantage of new sources of income (for example, subsidies for using resour-ces from traditional cultivation)
  • Reduced product cost by altering product design
  • Decreasing production costs (for example, by means of energy efficiency, processes enabling the substitution of rare resources)
  • Decreasing costs for transport and storage (for example, by increasing energy efficiency)
  • Decreasing personnel costs by en-couraging long-term commitment and higher levels of employee motivation

Sales and price

  • Appreciation or retention of real estate value (for example, by avoidance of contaminated sites, etc.)
  • Increasing sales by passing on lower costs & improving differentiation (new product lines with value added biodiversity protection)
  • Sales from new by-products
  • Increasing sales brought on by sales activities of confident employees

Risk mitigation

  • Risk of increasing operational costs (for example, due to higher energy prices)
  • Risk of rising costs or the loss of non-renewable production factors such as fertile ground or fresh water
  • Risk of company-damaging NGO campaigns against the product
  • Risk of rising energy costs Production breakdown caused by NGO blockade
  • Risk of rising fuel costs
  • Reduction of accident risks through higher employee motivation and less dangerous production


  • Reputation improvement by constructing buildings that preserve biodiversity
  • Reputation gain due to the usage of biodegradable materials
  • The ecological performance of the product may cause a gain in reputation
  • Reputation gain by reconfiguration/optimizing of production & through climate friendly local production with short transport routes
  • Reputation gain due to higher employee loyalty


  • Working environment can enhance employee creativity
  • Chance for usage of new (and cheaper or better) materials
  • Development of new innovative products
  • Innovative production processes (for example, through the use of micro-organisms instead of chemical processes)
  • Development of new packaging systems or product distribution channels
  • Interesting work content as employee motivation

Business model

  • Site development as business model (for example, “green roofs”)
  • New financial models in the finance sector through differentiation or region
  • New product-service combinations as basis for new business model
  • Employee volunteering as part of business model

Habitat transformation

  • Space required for buildings
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Area and volume requirements of the project
  • Land needed for production facilities
  • Discharge of heated waste water
  • Space required for roads and storage
  • Roads and pipelines cross migratory species routes
  • Habitats constructed in an employee volunteering project

Climate change

  • Power demand and CO2 emissions of buildings
  • Ground storage of CO2
  • Power demand and CO2 emissions
  • Reduction of carbon sinks in production of raw materials
  • Power demand and product CO2 emissions
  • Ozone-depleting substances in products
  • Power demand and CO2 emissions caused by transportation
  • Employee behaviour impacts power demand and there-fore greenhouse gas emissions

Invasive species (Neobiota)

  • Location of site may accommodate invasive species (for example, ragweed)
  • Cultivation non-native of new, resources
  • Product may lead to spreading of invasive species
  • Spreading of invasive species by transport of resources and products
  • Employee behaviour has impact on spreading of invasive species


  • Drainage of wetlands
  • Erosion caused by agriculture
  • Overfishing
  • Monoculture
  • Homogenization ofagriculture
  • Service features and product attributes can have an impact on biodiversity
  • Excessively sized facilities may generate increased demand for resources and lead to overexploitation
  • Parking space management
  • Employee behaviour has impact on biodiversity


  • Release of climate gases from depletion of forests and drainage of wetlands Dust
  • Building shadows
  • Overfertilisation
  • Waste water
  • Product usage may cause emissions (for example, waste water, noise, air p ollutants)
  • Product as waste
  • Emissions caused by production
  • Separation of oil
  • Detergent and waste water
  • Particulate matter
  • Emissions employee travel






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